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Two lung diseases killed 3.6 million in 2015: study

The two most common chronic lung diseases claimed 3.6 million lives worldwide in 2015, according to a tally published Thursday in The Lancet Respiratory Medicine.

About 3.2 million people succumbed that year to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), caused mainly by smoking and pollution, while 400,000 people died from asthma.

COPD is a group of lung conditions -- including emphysema and bronchitis -- that make it difficult to breathe.

Asthma is twice as prevalent, but COPD is eight times more deadly, the study found.

Both diseases can be treated affordably, but many sufferers are often left undiagnosed, misdiagnosed or under-treated.

COPD was the fourth-ranked cause of death worldwide in 2015, according to the World Health Organization, behind heart disease (nine million), stroke (six million) and lower respiratory infections (just over 3.2 million).

Researchers led by Theo Vos, a professor at the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington, analysed data from 188 countries to estimate, in each one, the number of cases and deaths annually from 1990 to 2015.

COPD prevalence and death rates declined over that period, but the overall numbers increased -- with nearly 12 percent more deaths -- because of population growth.

For asthma, prevalence went up by almost 13 percent to 358 million people worldwide, but the number of deaths dropped by more than a quarter.

"These diseases have received less attention than other prominent non-communicable diseases like cardiovascular disease, cancer or diabetes," Vos said in a statement.

The countries with the highest concentration of people disabled by COPD in 2015 were Papua New Guinea, India, Lesotho and Nepal, the study showed.

For asthma, the biggest disease burdens were found in Afghanistan, the Central African Republic, Fiji, Kiribati, Lesotho, Papula New Guinea and Swaziland.

High-income Asian nations were least affected by COPD, along with countries in central Europe, north Africa, the Middle East and western Europe. Central and eastern Europe, along with China, Japan and Italy, had among the lowest rates of asthma.

"This study is a timely reminder that we must refocus our efforts to combat this dangerous disease," Neil Pearce, a professor at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, commented, referring to asthma.

"We still know very little about the causes of asthma, and why rates are increasing worldwide," he added.

Smoking is known to aggravate asthma, as are allergens, whether indoors or in nature.

Indoor cooking is also a major culprit for chronic lung diseases, the authors noted.

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Can offshore fish farming feed a hungry world?

Harvesting fish and shellfish from offshore farms could help provide essential protein to a global population set to expand a third to 10 billion by mid-century, researchers said Monday.

Suitable open-sea zones have the potential to yield 15 billion tonnes of fish every year, more than 100 times current worldwide seafood consumption, they reported in the journal Nature Ecology & Evolution.

Coastal and inland aquaculture already accounts for more than half of the fish consumed around the world. Many regions, especially in Africa and Asia, depend on fish for protein.

But severe pollution, rising costs, and intense competition for shoreline real estate mean that production in these areas cannot expand indefinitely.

Wild fishery catches, meanwhile, have mostly plateaued or are in decline.

That leaves the deep blue sea, or at least territorial waters up to 200 metres (650 feet) deep -- the practical limit for anchoring commercial farms.

"Oceans represent an immense opportunity for food production, yet the open ocean environment is largely untapped as a farming resource," the authors noted.

To assess that potential, a team of researchers led by Rebecca Gentry, a professor at the University of California Santa Barbara, undertook a series of calculations.

First they divvied up the ocean into a grid, excluding areas that were too deep or already given over to oil extraction, marine parks or shipping lanes, for example.

Some 11.4 million square kilometres (4.4 million square miles) of ocean could be developed for fish, and 1.5 million square kilometres for bivalves, such as mussels, the study found.

Then -- to calculate the biomass that might be harvested -- the team matched 120 fish species and 60 bivalves to cells in the grid, depending on the temperature of the water and other factors such as oxygen density.

- Cost headache? -

Currently, just over 40 species make up 90 percent of global seafood production. Only four percent of the total consists of finfish, such as salmon, barramundi, groupers and bass.

All the wild fish harvested worldwide could be obtained from an area the size of Lake Michigan, or Belgium and the Netherlands combined, the study showed.

"Nearly every coastal country has high marine aquaculture potential and could meet its own domestic seafood demand... typically using only minute fraction of its ocean territory," the authors said.

Many of the countries with the highest potential -- Indonesia, India and Kenya among them -- are also predicted to experience sharp increases in population, they noted.

The findings show "that space is currently not a limiting factor for the expansion of oceanic aquaculture," said Max Troell, a scientist at the Stockholm Resilience Centre who was not involved in the research.

But hurdles remain before production can be ramped up to meet a significant portion of global demand, he added in a commentary, also in Nature Ecology & Evolution.

"The big challenges facing the near-term expansion of the aquaculture sector lie in the development of sustainable feeds, and in better understanding how large-scale ocean farming systems interact with ecosystems and human well-being," he wrote.

Production and transportation costs could also be a constraint, he added.

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